(1) As head of the Dutch central bank from 1982 to 1997, Duisenberg functioned as the Dutch arm of the Bundesbank, copying German interest-rate moves to keep the guilder in a virtual monetary union with the mark.(2) Much of the earlier strong performance of the Dutch economy was due to a decision in the early 1980s to link the guilder to the Deutschmark through the European Exchange Rate Mechanism.(3) That is, prices start at the highest point, usually a guilder per stem, and fall until a buyer finds an agreeable price.(4) The Dutch are angry at the price rises that accompanied the loss of the guilder and the launch of the euro, hostile towards the new east European members from last year's big-bang enlargement, and opposed to Turkey joining the union.(5) In October 1981 the Deutschmark and the Dutch guilder were revalued, while the French franc and the lira were devalued.(6) No more confusion over how many dollars make a mark and how many marks become a guilder or how many lire a set of wheels go for.(7) Most suppliers and wholesalers hiked prices because the guilder was 2.2 to the euro.(8) From 1782 to 1788 Dutch banks loaned nine million guilders , which helped salvage American finances.(9) The euro, which replaces the old francs, marks, guilders , pesetas, escudos, drachmas, and lire of the European Union, is not yet five years old.(10) Thus Australia used rupees, guilders , and Spanish dollars.(11) The money ran into thousands of guilders (hundreds of pounds sterling) but went unnoticed by the bank.(12) Francs, Deutschmarks, guilders , punts, drachmas and pesetas will all have gone by the end of February.(13) The Elector Palatine in Dusseldorf appointed him as court-painter in 1697, with an annual salary of four thousand guilders , but left him free to sell half his pictures to others.(14) Stevin bought a house at the Raamstraat in The Hague in 1612 for 3800 Dutch guilders (another sign of his high status and wealth).(15) I don't know about you, but I'm glad I am not a French or Dutch citizen trading my rock-solid francs and guilders for fuchsia and teal notes watermarked with soaring views of bridges that don't exist.(16) A round of drinks used to be 25 guilders ; now it's more like 20 euros.